The most common reasons for tooth extraction are symptoms on a tooth or wisdom teeth that do not fit properly on the dental arch. Extraction is usually the last resort when no other options are available.
Reasons for extraction include severe cavities or an advanced loss of periodontal tissue (periodontitis). There may be an acute abscess in the root end or the tooth may have been severely damaged in an accident. In some cases, teeth may be extracted in connection with orthodontics and prosthetic therapy. Extraction is also common during the teeth analysis before radiotherapy.
The dentist extracts the tooth that shows symptoms or other problems according to the treatment plan. The extraction method depends on, for example, the tooth position and on whether the tooth is covered by the gum or not. If there is no treatment plan for the extraction, there may be other treatment options available. An extracted tooth can and, in most cases, should be replaced with an implant or other prosthetic device.
If the tooth is visible through the gum, it can usually be extracted without opening the gum, which is quick and relatively easy.
If the tooth has several roots, it can be drilled into several pieces so that each root can be extracted separately. If the tooth is mainly covered by the gum or deep within the bone, the mucous membrane is opened so that the tooth becomes visible. If necessary, the bone is drilled in order to extract the tooth.
Tooth extraction and drilling of the bone cause no pain under anaesthesia. If the mucous membrane is cut open, the cut is sewn with stitches that dissolve in two weeks.
There are various methods for replacing an extracted tooth, such as artificial tooth root treatment or bridge structures. The tooth should be replaced, in particular, if it was extracted from a visible place or if it was important for occlusion.
Artificial tooth root treatment involves planting an artificial root on the bone, also known as a dental implant. The tooth is then built on top of the root. Extracted teeth can also be replaced with bridge structures that are fastened with the help of implants or the adjacent teeth.
Tooth extraction is needed if the tooth has been so severely damaged that it can no longer be saved. If you are unsure about whether or not your tooth needs to be extracted, you can also make an appointment, for example, for an ache or injury appointment or dental examination.
If the tooth extraction is complex or if multiple teeth will be extracted, make a longer appointment, following the instructions of your dentist.